bandeira Inglaterra

Adverbs for Outcomes – Because vs. Though

In a result clause, two types of outcomes can be expressed:

  • because  –  expected, logical
  • though     –  unexpected, illogical
Because it was snowing, he wore his winter pants. 
Sincehe was cold, he put on a parka.
*Because ofthe snow, schools were closed.
Though it was snowing, he was biking in his shorts.
Although he was cold, he wore only a T-shirt.
Even though there was snow, the schools remained open. 
In spite of the fact thatit was raining, we went on a picnic.
Due to the cold temperature, the pipes froze.
On account of the bad weather, people stayed indoors.
Owing to the bad weather, mail service way delayed.
In spite of the cold temperature, the pipes did not freeze.
Despite the bad weather, people were out and about. 
Regardless ofbad weather, the mail is delivered.
It was raining.  For this reason, we moved our picnic indoors.
It was sunny.  Consequently, we had to wear sunscreen.
It was bright.  As a result, we had to wear sun glasses to drive.
It was raining.  Nevertheless, we went on a picnic.
It was cloudy.  Even so, we got sunburned.

Common Mistakes

*The skier wanted to compete though he broke his ankle.

  Unclear – How did he compete with a broken ankle?
  “Though” means he did.  “But” means he didn’t.
The skier wanted to compete, but he broke his ankle.
(He wasn’t able to compete.)

Though the skier broke his ankle, he was able to compete.
(He was able to compete – a miracle!)
*Since its March, its raining here. 

 The meaning for “since” is unclear.
It has been raining here since March.  
(since = duration; from then until now)
Since it is March (spring), it’s raining here. 
(since = reason; rain is expected in March)
*Due to it’s raining here, we can’t go.
*Due to it being rain here, we can’t go.
  A noun is required.
Due to the rain here, we can’t go. 

(Use a noun. No noun phrase available for “It”.)

Adverbs Followed by Clauses vs. Nouns/Noun Phrases

Adverbs + prepositions phrases (i.e. because of, in spite of, on account of, due to) need to be followed by noun phrases not clauses.

Because we were cold, we went inside.Because of the cold, we went inside.
Because of our being cold, we went inside.
In spite of the fact it was 20 degrees outside, we stayed out.In spite of freezing temperature, we stayed out.
In spite of the 20 degree temperature, we stayed out.
Since there was a terrible storm, we stayed homeDue to the storm, we stayed home.
Due to there being a terrible storm, we stayed home. (wordy)
Because we forgot to pack snow clothes, we were cold.Owing to our poor judgment, we were cold.
Owing to our forgetting to pack snow clothes, we were cold.
Because the runways were covered with snow, airplanes were grounded.On account of snow-covered runways, airplanes were grounded.
On account of the runways being covered with snow, airplanes were grounded.
Because the election is coming soon, news coverage of it is increasing.Because of the rapidly approaching election date, news coverage of it is increasing. 

* “There” noun phrases sound awkward due to their wordiness.

Complete the sentence with the connector that fits the context.

1.I bought a new car ___ I wanted a better one.

                        a. Because      b. although

2. I bought a new car ___ I already have another good one.

                        a. Because      b. although

3. I sold my old car ___I don’t need it anymore.

                        a. Because      b. although

4. I bought a car that has only two seats ___ there are four people in my family.

                        a. Because      b. in spite of the fact

5. I bought a car that has only two seats ___ I want to be able to use the carpool lanes.

                        a. since          b. even though

6. I like to drive it with the top down ___ I sun-burn easily.

                        a. Because      b. though

7. The car came with an pod adapter___ I didn’t order it.

                        a. since          b. even though

8. The cigarette lighter is useful___ you can plug accessories into it.

                        a. since          b. although

9. Consumer’s Report rated this car very high___ it is so reliable.

                        a. Because      b. even though

10. ____ the car has had a few problems, Consumer’s Report rated it very high.

                        a. since          b. even though

11. Because _____ ,  I will vote for him.

a. I like the candidate’s ideas 

b.  the candidate’s good ideas 

12. The candidate won despite ___ .

                        a. his lack of experience 

b. he had little experience

13. In spite of the fact of the fact ___ , she won.

                        a. the candidate is a woman 

b. being a woman

14. The candidate lost the election even though ____ .

                        a. winning the popular vote 

b. he won the popular vote

15. Due to ___ , he ran out of money.

                        a. the candidate was not well-organized 

b. the candidate’s poor organization

Adverbs of Condition – If, Unless & Only If


“If”, “unless” and “only if” are often used to state conditions for desired outcomes.

IFUNLESS  (if not)ONLY IF  (one specific condition)
If you cook your turkey like this, you will have a tender turkey.Unless you cook your turkey like this, you won’t have a tender turkey.
Unless you cook your turkey like this, you will have a tough turkey.
Only if you cook your turkey like this, will you have a delicious dinner.  

 you use a thermometer,

you will know when your turkey is done.

This is one way to tell when it’s ready. There may be other ways as well.
Unless you use a thermometer,you won’t know when your turkey is done.Not using a thermometer will give bad results. (Listen to me!)
Only if you use a thermometer,will you know when your turkey is done.There is only one way to tell when it’s done. (I don’t think much of the other ways.)

Note:  Sometimes, using the negative form is a way for the speaker to impose his/her will. Compare: “Are you tired?” and “Aren’t you tired?”.  The speaker, when using the negative, wants the listener to agree.

Only IF – Requires Word Order Change



you dry your dishes with a towel,

they will be spotless!
Only ifyou dry your dishes with a towel,will they be spotless!

Ifyou use Zing dish soap,you  get really clean dishes.  (get = do get)
Only ifyou use Zing dish soap,do you get really clean dishes.

Ifyou used Zing dish soap,you  got really clean dishes.  (got = did get)
Only ifyou used Zing dish soap,did you get really clean dishes.

Note: If there is no auxilary verb , you will need to add one.


Only if you dry your dishes with a towel, will they be spotless!If only  I had more time,I could relax.

1. Most drivers will let you change lanes ___ you signal well in advance.

                                   a.  if     b.  unless

2. You shouldn’t change lanes ____ you signal first.

                                   a.  if     b. unless

3. A driver may change lanes _____ it is safe to do so.

                                   a. only if     b. unless

4. A driver may make a right turn on a red light ____ he stops first and then checks for oncoming traffic.

                                   a. if     b. unless

5. A driver may make a right turn on a red ___ it is a one-way street and the traffic is oncoming.

                                   a. if     b. unless

6. I driver can go through a red light ___ a police officer instructs the driver to do so.

                                   a. if     b. unless

7. A driver may drive 65 mph in a zone that is marked 65 mph ___ it is unsafe to do so.

                                   a. if     b. unless

8. ___ drivers are careful, accidents will happen.

                                   a. if     b. unless

9. ___ you drink, don’t drive.

                                   a. if     b. unless

10. A driver should park in a handicapped space ____ the driver has a special permit.

                                   a. if     b. unless

Adverbs of Probablilty  – In Case  In the Event   Should

Planning for the Unexpected

“In case”, “in the event” and “should” are used to tell plans for big and little emergencies.

In the event (that) you need to reach me,call my cell phone.
In case you need to reach me,call my home.
Should you need to reach me,call me at work.
INITIAL POSITION (use a comma)MID-POSITON (no comma)
In the event (that) you need to reach me, call me.Call me in the event you need me.
In case you need to reach me, call me.Call me in case you need me.
Should you need to reach me, call me.Call me should you need me.

NOTE: When the adverb is at the beginning of the sentence, a comma is used to mark a change from normal word order: 

1. I doubt that you will need them, but here are my emergency numbers. 

Here are my emergency numbers in case ____

a. you will need them            b. you need them

2. It’s not likely, but if my brother calls, tell him I’ll be home tonight.

Should ___ , tell him I’ll be home tonight.

                        a. my brother calls                              b. my brother call

3. If there is a tornado, find shelter underground.

In the event  ____, find shelter underground.

                        a. there is a tornado                           b. there be a tornado

4. It’s unlikely that I will win the lottery, but if I do, please don’t ask me for money. 

Should___ , don’t ask me for money.

                        a. that I win the lottery          b. I win the lottery

5. If an earthquake occurs, stand in a doorway. 

In the event___ , stand in a doorway.

                        a. an earthquake occur                       b. an earthquake occurs

6. While you may not need them, I am leaving my car keys here for you.

I am leaving my car keys here for you in case ___

                        a. you may not need them      b. you need them

7. I’ll leave the cookies on the counter, here, if you want any more. 

Should ___, I will leave them, here, on the counter. 
(Note that the speaker expresses additional doubt by using ‘any’ instead of ‘some’.)

                        a. if you want any more                     b. you want any more

8. While it probably won’t rain, if you like I can lend you an umbrella.

In case____ , I can lend you an umbrella.

                        a. it probably won’t rain         b. it’s rain        c. it rains

9. It probably won’t happen, but if you get home late, I’ll leave the light on. 

Should___ ,   I’ll leave the light on.

                        a. if you get home late                                   b. you get home late

10. If the President calls, tell him I am busy!

In the event___ , tell him I am busy!

                        a. the President call                            b. the President calls

11. Give him my cell phone number ____ he need me.

                        a. should         b. in the event that     c. in case

12. ___ she gets overwhelmed, ask her to call me.

                        a. should         b. in the event that     c. in case

13. ___ my cell phone be turned off, call my office number.

                        a. should         b. in the event that     c. in case

14. Call my home___ no answers the phone in the office.

                        a. should         b. in the event that     c. in case

15. ___ you call my home and no one answers, call my parents.

                        a. should         b. in the event that     c. in case

Review Exercises

1. ___ my computer froze, I had to restart it.

a. Since           b. Because      c. Consequently          d. For

2. I couldn’t get it to start again, ___ the battery was dead.

            a. so                b. for               c. because of               d. because

3. I had left it on all day; ____ , it was dead.

            a. consequently           b. because       c. so that         d. therefore

4. ___ I needed to work, I had to go find the power cord.

            a. For              b. Since                       c. Due to         d. Therefore

5. I had a “splitting headache” today. It got ___ bad that I had to take a tablet.

            a. such             b. therefore                 c. so much       d. so

6. ___ technology is advancing, we will have to spend more time keeping up.

            a. Now that     b. Since                       c. Because       d. Inasmuch as

7. People choose Apple computers ___ their ease of use.

            a. because       b. due to         c. due to the fact that             d. because of

8. Other people prefer to use PCs ___ they are more universally used.

            a. because       b. due to         c. due to the fact that             d. because of

9. Why did Jack buy an iMac? He bought one ___ he could easily access the Internet.

            a. so                b. so that         c. due to                     d. for

10. He had lots of free time, ___ he spent it  ‘surfing’ the Internet.                               a. so 
b. so that  c. for that reason,  d. since

Adverbs of Emphasis

He made a gingerbread house.  Indeed, he made a fancy one!This gingerbread house is even fancier than the one before.
Everyone said “ah” when they saw it.  Indeed! They were amazedEveryone was delighted, even amazed, when they saw it.
He’s a master at building gingerbread houses. In fact, he’s a teacher at the Culinary Academy.He’s a master at building gingerbread houses. He even teaches his art at the Culinary Academy.
He made it fairly quickly.  In fact, he did most of it in just one day.He makes them in one day.  He even works late to get them done.
He loves to work by himself. In fact, he wouldn’t have it any other way.He loves to work by himself.  He even prefers it that way.

Even vs. Even Though

EVEN – emphasisEVEN THOUGH – unexpected outcome
He cooks, even bakes, for all his friends.He cooks and bakes even though he doesn’t have much time.
He has his own bakery, even does private catering.He does a lot of catering even though he doesn’t advertise at all.
His creations are beautiful and taste even better.His chocolate cake is amazing even though it has no butter in it.

Even If  vs. Even Though

EVEN If – without conditionEVEN THOUGH – unexpected outcome
I’ll help you even if I don’t have much time.
(I may or may not have time. In either condition, I’ll help.)
I’ll help you even though I don’t have much time.  
(I don’t have much time, still I will help.)
I like to walk to work even if it is raining.
(It may or may not be raining. In either condition, I walk.)
I like to walk to work even though it is raining.
(It’s raining, still I like to walk to work.)
Even if he doesn’t say so, he loves you.
(He may or may not say so. In either condition, he loves you.)
Even though he doesn’t say so, he loves you.
(He doesn’t say so, still he loves you.)

Complete the sentence with the connector that fits the context.

1. Chef Giorgio loves Italian food. ___ it is his favorite cuisine.

                        a. indeed         b. in fact         c. even

2. He travels a lot. ___ he has been to Italy many times.

                        a. indeed         b. in fact         c. even

3. While he looks Italian, ___ he is Mexican.

                        a. indeed         b. in fact         c. even

4. He likes Italian food and culture so much, he ___ changed his name from Jorge to Giorgio.

                        a. indeed         b. in fact         c. even

5. ___ it makes his restaurant, “Giorgio”, more authentic .

                        a. indeed         b. in fact         c. even

6. Chef Giorgio serves a delicious Osso Bucco.  ___ it’s the best I’ve ever had.

                        a. indeed         b. in fact         c. even

7. Chef Giorgio is  ___ willing to help guests select wines to go with his dishes.

                        a. indeed         b. in fact         c. even

8. For holidays, Chef Giorgio likes to entertain his friends; ___ he has many.

                        a. indeed         b. in fact         c. even

9. He once entertained  ___ over two hundred people.

                        a. indeed         b. in fact         c. even

10. He ___ did all the cooking himself.

                        a. indeed         b. in fact         c. even

11. We often eat the wrong kinds of food ___

            a. even we know better .        b. even though we know better.

12. We often over-eat ____ .  

            a. even stuff ourselves with food. b. even though stuff ourselves with food.  

13. Often because of improper food-labeling, we don’t ___

            a. even know what we are eating. b. even though know what we are eating.  

14. ___ certain foods aren’t good for us, we eat them .

            a. Even we know        b. Even though we know 

15. We should eat a healthy diet ___

            a. even if we are pressed for time.     b. even we are pressed for time.

 CoordinatingCorrelativeSubordinatingConjunctive / Transition
 These occur mid-sentence and join two independent clauses. A comma is placed before the conjunction. 
He talked, and I listened.
These occur paired and are used to join equivalent sentence elements such as one noun or noun phrase with another noun or noun phrase. 
Both his campaign and her project ran out of money.
These occur at the beginning of sentences (with a comma separating the clause mid-sentence) or they occur mid-sentence with no comma.
We went though it rained.  Though it rained, we went.
These can be used at the beginning of sentences. They transition the reader from the thought of one sentence or paragraph to the thought in the next. 
We wanted to go; however, it rained. We wanted to go. However, it rained. We wanted to go; it rained, however.
Additionandboth . . . and, not only . . . but also, and . . . tooalso, as well as, besides, too, in addition, moreover, furthermore,in addition, furthermore, moreover, additionally, besides x, also y
Contrastbut, yetneither . . . nor, but . . .still,  but . . . anywayalthough, even though, though, while, whereas, despite,   in spite ofnevertheless, nonetheless, however, on the one hand, on the other hand
Cause/Effectso, forso . . . that; such . . . thatbecause, since, now that, as, in order that, so, as long as, inasmuch, because of, due to, owing totherefore, consequently, as a consequence, as a result, thus, hence, accordingly
Alternativeor, noreither . . . or, or . . . or or ratherinstead, as an alternative, otherwise, rather
Conditionor elsewhether . . . or notif   only if,   unless,   even if,   whether or not,   provided (that),   in case,   in the event (that) otherwise, in the event (that), anyway, anyhow
Time  after, before, when, while, since, as,until, as soon as, by the timefirst, second, next, then, finally, previously, now, presently, next, still, meanwhile, subsequently, afterward
Comparison as . . .  as, more/less . . . thanas (like) as if, as thoughIn the same way, Similarly, In contrast, Unlike X, Y. . .
Emphasis   in deed, in fact, of course, certainly